Marked pedestrian crossings provide priority for pedestrians when traffic volumes are high. They normally do not improve pedestrian safety on roads where you can find a gap in traffic or where there are few pedestrians.
Specific requirements about how many pedestrians cross and traffic volumes need to be met before a zebra crossing is installed. Crossings that don't meet the requirements can be hazardous for motorists and pedestrians.
In some locations, zebra crossings can be placed on a speed hump to improve safety and reduce vehicle speeds at the crossing. Signalised pedestrian crossings are generally only considered:
as part of signalised intersections, or
where there is no other safe way to cross a busy road with high pedestrian demands.
Pedestrian refuge islands are often used in the middle of the road to provide a safe place for pedestrians to wait while crossing the road.
This allows pedestrians to cross in two stages and concentrate on only one direction of traffic at a time. Refuges are often found to be safer than zebra crossings.
A children’s crossing is a temporary pedestrian crossing used only at schools on school days. It is generally operated by a School Crossing Supervisor. The children’s crossing has red and white posts on each side of the road with crossing flags to indicate when the crossing is in operation.
Kerb ramps are used at the ends of footpaths where pedestrians are intended to cross the road. They allow for people with wheelchairs and other mobility devices to cross the road. Tactile warning markers are also used to help people with visual impairment to cross the road.